The Africa Kingdom Business Forum

Chartered Accountants in Victoria, BC


Growing businesses that offer credit to customers or request credit from suppliers use the accrual basis of accounting. Here, sales and purchases are immediately recorded even if there’s no exchange of cash involved until a later time. Every small business needs to take in more money than it spends to achieve profitability and be successful in the long term. As businesses operate, they constantly spend money on items such as equipment, parts, payroll and rent and take money from customers and clients by selling products and services. Businesses use a variety of financial records to keep track of how much money they spend and how much they make. The third rule may sound daunting at first, but if you read and apply it a couple of times, it gets easier and easier.

Plus, they no longer need to be anxious when auditing season comes. Whether you do a lot of your own bookkeeping or outsource it all, software can help you save your time and budget. Enter the numbers right and you’ll learn exactly how the business is doing. State employees who have limited access and may be able to view/update personal information, benefit related information, timesheets, and payroll information. Every transaction has to be recorded in at least two accounts.

One of the cardinal rules for entrepreneurs is delegate, delegate, delegate! In fact, contrary to popular opinion, the most successful business owners don’t do everything themselves – especially when it involves an area as complex as accounting. The double-entry system is for businesses with complex transactions, such as companies with accrued expenses.What is an accrued expense? This refers to an expense entered into the bookkeeping system at the purchase date, not on the payment date. Using Employee Self-Service , employees will be able to view information unique to them. Precisely, the role of a bookkeeper involves sending and receiving invoices, making payments, recording receipts, and keeping a track of business debtors and creditors.

Managers cannot make well-informed decisions if they don’t know how much money the company currently has at its disposal, how much debt it has and how much revenue it makes. Good record maintenance can also help businesses justify tax deductions and file accurate tax returns. Companies may maintain several different financial ledgers.


To balance the books, you need to carefully monitor the assets, liabilities, and equity. Fail to manage accounts receivable correctly and your business will rapidly run out of money. HR, benefits, time/absence, payroll, and financial professionals who are responsible for administration of business processes for their agency/locality. You record transactions into each account, and at the end of the period, you take profit or loss from an income statement and absorb it into the equity. The income statement shows the amounts earned or spent by the business.

What Is the Difference Between Bookkeeping and Accounting?

Lastly, and most importantly, it can save you from the complexities of debits and credits as it automatically records the relevant double entries when you input common transactions. Expenses refer to the money used to run the business but aren’t related to products or services. For instance, one of the items under the expense account is salary or payroll expenses. The first three basics of bookkeeping discussed above are what you’ll find in the Balance Sheet.

A good idea is to start small and then gradually improve. For instance, you can start keeping the details of cash inflows and outflows in a spreadsheet. You can then import this spreadsheet into dedicated software and take your bookkeeping to the next level. Ardinal Rules have been around for a long time and can go by a variety of names, such as Golden Safety Rules, fundamental rules, critical rules, etc.

Bookkeeping Advice for Small Businesses

As they keep track of daily financial operations, bookkeepers can tell business owners what’s financially feasible and what isn’t. However, the accountants are the ones who identify the problems and provide solutions for the client. One of the crucial tasks of an accountant is to determine the business’s profit or loss. They also help businesses with their financial forecasts, tax planning and filing. Ledger maintenance and the maintenance of financial records in general are vital to a company’s success.

When assets or expenses increase, we record a debit entry. When income, equity or liabilities increase, we record a credit entry. Bookkeepers apply the accrual basis of accounting when tracking the accounts receivable and accounts payable.

cardinal rules for bookkeeping include

This saves time from doing manual work and lessens human error. Businesses can actually skip hiring an actual bookkeeper and avail automated services instead. Although, they must still pay for the software and the people who manage it. To keep yourself relevant in the industry, strive to provide services that a machine can’t. These include consultancy and specialist roles that add value to clients.

Record Maintenance Basics

If you’re doing simple bookkeeping for a small business or you’re operating a one-person business, applying the cash basis of accounting is ideal. Here, you record each transaction whenever cash changes hands. Many businesses issue invoices, and those invoices need to be tracked. You can just categorize an item once, and the software will do the rest for you. The software can even help identify any errors and provide you with tips to resolve them.

You also need to ensure that all transactions concerning these three are correctly recorded in the right journal or document. Outsourcing your bookkeeping is more affordable than you would think. We save you money the moment you hire us by cutting out the expensive cost of hiring an in-house CFO. To wring maximum value from a marketing budget, you need to understand where your investment is earning the highest returns.


Accounting is more subjective, as it provides insights for the business based on the information gathered through bookkeeping. Accountants create the internal controls that run the bookkeeping system properly. They also analyze and verify the information recorded by bookkeepers.

Similarities & Differences Between Accounting & Bookkeeping

This works for sole proprietors and small business owners who deal with minimal and uncomplicated transactions. Equity refers to the ownership of the business owners and investors in the company. In the Balance Sheet, the equity accounts cover all the claims they have over the company. Inventory – These are the products not yet sold, which business owners should always keep track of. Previously recorded inventory should be regularly reviewed against the current inventory on hand through manual counting. Accounts Receivable – This is the money to be collected from customers for the products they purchase and services they purchase or avail.

Hearst Newspapers participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means we may get paid commissions on editorially chosen products purchased through our links to retailer sites. The Cardinal Program is the Commonwealth of Virginia’s statewide initiative to implement and leverage Oracle’s Enterprise Resources Planning management system. Named in honor of the state bird, the Cardinal system was designed to replace and improve an outdated accounting system. The total debit recorded for each transaction must be equal to the total credit.

Since many transactions involve the exchange of cash, a key tip is to start by assessing whether you have received or paid cash. As cash is an asset, a debit entry is recorded when it increases and a credit entry is recorded when it decreases. Bookkeeping automation is becoming more popular as the industry moves toward efficient and sustainable practices. Through machine learning software equipped with the capabilities of artificial intelligence, one can automate bookkeeping. Bookkeepers can accomplish a lot of their manual tasks using a bookkeeping software.

The most important is the general ledger, which divides the firm’s credits and debits into different account categories such as assets, liabilities, expenses and revenues. Companies may also keep a sales ledger that records the sales a business makes, plus the money received and owed for goods and services. A purchase ledger tracks all of the purchases a company makes and how much money the business owes to creditors. In business and financial accounting, “maintenance” refers to keeping records up to date with current financial transactions. Ledger maintenance refers to updating financial records called ledgers, which are simply records of the money a company spends and earns.

Bookkeeping includes everything from basic data entry to tax prep. Accounts receivable involves invoicing customers and tracking payment of those invoices. It often requires you to follow up on overdue payments. Reproduction of this website, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited. This website is an informative comparison site that aims to offer its users find helpful information regarding the products and offers that will be suitable for their needs. We are able to maintain a free, high-quality service by receiving advertising fees from the brands and service providers we review on this website .

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The residue of the two is either profit or loss, which is added or subtracted to balance sheet equity at the end of the period. Although used interchangeably, bookkeeping is different from accounting. The former merely involves maintaining the records, whereas the latter involves analyzing, categorizing and presenting useful financial information to the business stakeholders.


Some can be common across companies like “always de-energize equipment before working on it”, while others may be very specific to a particular stp and finalisation and its operations. Revenue refers to all the income that comes into the business after selling products and services. Liabilities cover all the payables or debts to creditors and suppliers — that is, the money owed to them. Equity covers the investment or capitalization that business owners put into the business. You can rest assured that we will work closely with you to create actionable business plans and accurate financial reporting. We offer our toolkit of financial intelligence that will be your greatest asset for business growth.